Kamis, 28 April 2011


1.       Dipinition ( depinisi )
We use the descriptive text to describe a particular person, place or thing. It focuses on specific participants. The description includes parts, qualities and characteristics. Descriptive Text often uses the form of be : present or past and one of have form. The present tense is often used in this kind of text, but sometimes we can also use the past tense to describe a certain thing which is extinct or not available nowadays. The passive form is also often used here.

2.       Communicative porpose (tujuan )
The aim of descriptive text is basically to give information. The social context of this text is to describe a specific thing, animal, or human being ( certain thing, our pets or someone we know well), it is different from report text which describes something in general ( for example a specific of animal species, an architect of certain era, and so on).

3.       Generik Stuktur (stuktur Kalimat )
The generic structure of a descriptive text is as follows :
• Classification or Definition
• Description of features in order of importance.
The vocabularies often used in a descriptive text are the words which are related to names of places : locations, destinations, the functions, the appearances and the evidences if needed (for building). For animals, the words are used to describe the classification, the physical appearances, habitats, behaviour, life cycles, and the function. The language is neutral or objective.

4.       Language Feactures (Bahasa yang Digunakan)
Descriptive Text often uses the form of be : present or past and one of have form. The present tense is often used in this kind of text, but sometimes we can also use the past tense to describe a certain thing which is extinct or not available nowadays. The passive form is also often used here.

The language functions, the grammar and also the words which are often used in a descriptive text are :
• Defining : a/the .......was a .....
• Describing features (properties) : adjectives
• Expressing cause and effect : because, so, as a result
Descriptive text is often equipped with photos, diagrams, maps and so on.

5.       Excample of Text (Contoh Kalimat)

1.       Dipinition ( depinisi )
Procedure text are to give instructions, to give cautions, and to tell time sequences. For instructions and cautions.

2.       Communicative porpose (tujuan )
3.       Generick Stuktur (Struktur Kalimat)
A procedure text generally has a generic structure as follows :
•             Title,
•             Classification or Definition
•             Description of Features in order of importance,
•             List of Materials (optional), and
•             Series of steps sequenced in logical order

4.       Language Feactures ( Bahasa Yang Digunakan )
the language features which are often used are imperative verbs, while sequencers like first, next, then and finally are often used for the time sequences. Sometimes procedure text is also provided with diagrams, flow charts, or ilustrations.

5.       Excample Of Text ( Contoh Kalimat )

1.       Dipinition ( depinisi )
Recount is a text which retells events or experiences in the past. Its purpose is either to inform or to entertain the audience. There is no complication among the participants and that differentiates from narrative

2.       Communicative porpose (tujuan )
Purpose of the text (communicative purpose of the text): to tell the readers what Happened in the past through a sequence of events.

3.       Generick Stuktur (Struktur Kalimat)
Generic Structure of Recount
1. Orientation: Introducing the participants, place and time
2. Events: Describing series of event that happened in the past
3. Reorientation: It is optional. Stating personal comment of the writer to the story

Add caption
4.       Language Feactures ( Bahasa Yang Digunakan )
Language Feature of Recoun
• Introducing personal participant; I, my group, etc
• Using chronological connection; then, first, etc
• Using linking verb; was, were, saw, heard, etc
• Using action verb; look, go, change, etc
• Using simple past tense

5.       Excample Of Text ( Contoh Kalimat )

Last holiday, I and my friends went to Jakarta. We went there for five days, starting on March 5 to 9, 2010. We took the bus to get there. We visited several objects such as planetarium, GSA, Dufan, Tapos and Cibaduyut.

On the first day, we gathered at school around 2 pm. We left at 3 pm. We had dinner at Lestari restaurant in Kendal. We continued the trip around 7 pm. We arrived in Jakarta at about four in the morning. We went to PHI Hotels in Pondok Gede.

On the second day, we went to the Planetarium in TMII. We were there about two hours. Then, we visited to Dufan and GSA. we spent time there until late afternoon. Then, we went back to the hotel.

On the third day, we went to Bandung. we visited Tapos. We were there at about two hours. Our last object is Cibaduyut. We bought some souvenirs there. Around 8 pm, we went back to Kudus.

1.       Dipinition ( depinisi )
Report text functions to provide factual information about general characteristics of a certain thing, living or non-living thing.

2.       Communicative porpose (tujuan )
Information Reports classify and describe the phenomena of our world. This text is different from Descriptive text, which functions to give detail informations about a certain thing but not for generalizing it.

3.       Generick Stuktur (Struktur Kalimat)
The generic structure of a Report text is :
•    General Classification : tells what the phenomenon under discussion is.
•    Description : tells what the phenomenon under discussion is like in terms of - parts (and their functions)
- qualities
- habits or behaviours, if living; uses, if non-natural

4.       Language Feactures ( Bahasa Yang Digunakan )
This kind of text is used almost in every subject at school, so the competence to make or to understand this kind of text is an important part to develop the literate competence of the students at school. As the result, the teaching of this text does not only influence on the English literate development at school but also in other languages, even in their mother language.

5.       Excample Of Text ( Contoh Kalimat )
Tyrannosaurus rex, sometimes just called T-rex, is believed to be the largest and most fearsome predator on Earth's land ever to have existed. This dinosaur once roam the Earth in the Creataceous period approximately 68 to 65 million years ago.

As a carnivorous dinosaur, this giant predator most likely ambushed their prey, and devoured them with jaws full of white sharp teeth. With it's fast ability to run at an astonishing speed of 32 mph (50 kmh), a perfect slim and stiff tail that gave it an excellent balance and allowed it to make quick turns, equipped this gigantic predator and made it even more deadly, like a killing machine.

1.       Dipinition ( depinisi )
Anecdote is a text which retells funny and unusual incidents in fact or imagination.

2.       Communicative porpose (tujuan )
Its purpose is to entertain the readers.

3.       Generick Stuktur (Struktur Kalimat)
Generic Structure of Anecdote
1. Abstract
2. Orientation
3. Crisis
4. Incident.

4.       Language Feactures ( Bahasa Yang Digunakan )
Language Feature of Anecdote
1. Using exclamation words; it’s awful!, it’s wonderful!, etc
2. Using imperative; listen to this
3. Using rhetoric question; do you know what?
4. Using action verb; go, write, etc
5. Using conjunction of time; then, afterward
6. Using simple past tense

5.       Excample Of Text ( Contoh Kalimat )


1.       Dipinition ( depinisi )
Narrative text is usually imaginative, but sometimes can be factual (really happened). Those belong to narrative text among others are fairy stories, mysteries, science fictions, romaines, horrors etc.

2.       Communicative porpose (tujuan )
According to Derewianka (1990), the main goal of telling a story is to entertain, to get and to pay the attention of the readers or the listeners for what we tell them.

3.       Generick Stuktur (Struktur Kalimat)
generic structure of a narrative text is :
• Orientation (the beginning or introduction) introduces main characters, setting and time.
• Complication ( middle ): the problem happens among the characters.
• Resolution (ending) : the problem is resolved.

4.       Language Feactures ( Bahasa Yang Digunakan )
• Uses many action verb (material processes) and also verbal and mental processes
• Often uses past tense
• Uses many linking words related to time
• Uses dialogues so the tense can be possibly changed
• Descriptive language is used to create imagination in the mind of the readers
• Can be written as the first person (I), or the third person (He, She, They). The use of the singular second person (you) is often used in the story of “choose-your-own-adventure”. 

5.       Excample Of Text ( Contoh Kalimat )
Once upon a time, there was a man who was living in north Sumatra. He lived in a simple hut in a farming field. The did some gardening and fishing for his daily life.
One day, while the man was do fishing, he caught a big golden fish in his trap. It was the biggest catch which he ever had in his life. Surprisingly, this fish turned into a beautiful princess. He felt in love with her and proposed her to be his wife. She said; "Yes, but you have to promise not to tell anyone about the secret that I was once a fish, otherwise there will be a huge disaster". The man made the deal and they got married, lived happily and had a daughter.
Few years later, this daughter would help bringing lunch to her father out in the fields. One day, his daughter was so hungry and she ate his father’s lunch. Unfortunately, he found out and got furious, and shouted; “You damned daughter of a fish”. The daughter ran home and asked her mother. The mother started crying, felt sad that her husband had broke his promise.
Then she told her daughter to run up the hills because a huge disaster was about to come. When her daughter left, she prayed. Soon there was a big earthquake followed by non-stop pouring rain. The whole area got flooded and became Toba Lake. She turned into a fish again and the man became the island of Samosir.

1.       Dipinition ( depinisi )
Hortatory exposition is a text which represent the attempt of the writer to have the addressee do something or act in certain way.

2.       Communicative porpose (tujuan )
Presenting and influencing the audience (listener / reader) that should be so or not.

3.       Generick Stuktur (Struktur Kalimat)
Generic Structure of Hortatory Exposition
1. Thesis
2. Arguments
3. Recommendation

4.       Language Feactures ( Bahasa Yang Digunakan )
Abstrac nouns, misalnya policy, government , dsb.
 Relating verbs, misalnya It is important, dsb.
 Action verbs misalnya, She must save, dsb.
 Thinking verbs, misalnya Many people believe, dsb.
 Modal verbs, misalnya We must preserve, dsb.
 Modal adverbs, misalnya certainly, dsb.
 Connectives, misalnya firstly, secondly, dsb.
 Bahas evaluatif, misalnya important, valuabl, dsb.
 Kalimat pasif (passive voice

5.       Excample Of Text ( Contoh Kalimat )
Watch your Kids While Watching TV
Television becomes one of the most important devices which takes place in almost houses. It can unite all members of the family as well as separate them. However, is it important to know what your kids are watching? The answer is, of course, absolutely "Yes" and that should be done by all parents. Television can expose things you have tried to protect the children from, especially violence, pornography, consumerism and so on.

Recently, a study demonstrated that spending too much time on watching TV during the day or at bedtime often cause bed-time disruption, stress, and short sleep duration.

Another research found that there is a significant relationship between the amount of time spent for watching television during adolescence and early adulthood, and the possibility of being aggressive.
Meanwhile, many studies have identified a relationship between kids who watch TV a lot and being inactive and overweight.
Considering some facts mentioning above, protect your children with the following tips:

- Limit television viewing to one-two hours each day
- Do not allow your children to have a TV set in their own bedrooms
- Review the rating of TV shows which your children watch
- Watch television with your children and discuss what is happening in the show

1.       Dipinition ( depinisi )
News Item is a type of text associated with the news. We can find the text of News Items in event news coverage, in the form of listening texts, be it on the radio or on television. For written text can be found in newspapers or magazines.

2.       Communicative porpose (tujuan )
To inform the reader or listener. News Item A clear purpose is to inform the news to the reader or listener. The purpose of the news you read or hear it to get clear information from the source.

3.       Generick Stuktur (Struktur Kalimat)
In order for the resulting text is easily understood by the reader or listener, there are 3 stages that must exist in the text, namely:
1. Core write news or events that are considered important (Newsworthy Events).
2. Write the background or the cause of the event (Event Background).
              Writing a news source, usually contains about quotations from sources which usually witnesses,

4.       Language Feactures ( Bahasa Yang Digunakan )
·         Using Action Verbs
·         Using Saying Verbs 
·         Using Passive Sentence
5.       Excample Of Text ( Contoh Kalimat )
SINGAPORE: A supervisor was jailed for two months for repeatedly striking his Indonesian maid on the head and back with a television remote. (Ini namanya newsworthy event, inti berita ini adalah tentang seorang supervisor yang dipenjara)
Muhammad Shafiq Woon Abdullah was brought to court in Singapore because he had physically hurt the woman on several occasions between June and October 2002, the Straits Time said. (Ini bisa juga termasuk ke dalam source, ada kata “the Strait Time said”, sebagai sumber berita)
The magistrate’s court heard that Shafiq, 31, began striking Winarti, 22, about a month after she started working for him. (Paragraf 2 dan 3 adalah background event, karena menyebutkan latar belakang penyebab kejadian tersebut)
He hit her on the head with the TV sets remote control because he was unhappy with her work. On the occasion, he punched her on the back after accusing her of daydreaming.
S.S. Dhillon, Shafiq’s lawyer, said that his client had become mad when he saw his daughter’s face covered as she was lying in bed. He said his client thought the maid had put the child in danger. (paragraf ini juga merupakan source, ada kata “…lawyer, said”


1.       Dipinition ( depinisi )
The text discussion is the text that suggests about a problem or issue by providing at least two points of view of the issue. Finally, the text discussion provides conclusions or recommendations on issues raised.

2.       Communicative porpose (tujuan )

3.       Generick Stuktur (Struktur Kalimat)

4.       Language Feactures ( Bahasa Yang Digunakan )

The language features of a discussion text are often (but not always):

·      written in simple present tense
·      focused mainly on generic human (or non-human) participants using uncountable nouns, for example, some, most, category nouns, e.g. vehicles, pollution (nominalisation), power (abstract)
·      constructed using logical, connectives, for example, therefore, however
·      a movement usually from the generic to the specific: hunters' agree… Mr. Smith, who has hunted for many years…

5.       Excample Of Text ( Contoh Kalimat )

Giving Children Homework; Pro and Con

There are a lot of discussion as to whether children should be given homework or not. Is it enough for children having time to study at school or needing additional time in home for study after school time?

Some people claim that children do enough work in school already. They also argue that children have their hobbies which they want to do after school, such as sport or music. A further point they make is that a lot of homeworks are pointless and does not help the children learn at all.

However, there are also strong arguments against this point of view. Parents and teachers argue that it is important to find out whether children can work on their own without the support from the teacher. They say that the evening is a good time for children to sit down and think about what they have learned in school.

Furthermore they claim that the school day is too short to get anything done. It makes sense to send home tasks like independent reading or further writing task which do not need the teacher support.

I think, on balance, that some homework is good idea but that should only given at the weekend when children have more time.

1.       Dipinition ( Depenisi )
2.       Communicative porpose (tujuan )
3.       Generick Stuktur (Struktur Kalimat)
Events / events / activities,
Twist (end of an unexpected or funny).

4.       Language Feactures ( Bahasa Yang Digunakan )
Focused on people, animals, certain objects;
action verbs, for example, ate, ran, etc..
a description of time and place;
past tense.
are told by the sequence of events.

5.       Excample Of Text ( Contoh Kalimat )
Penguin in the park

Once a man was walking in a park when he came across a penguin.

He took him to a policeman and said, ‘I have just found this penguin. What should I do?’ The policeman replied, ’Take him to the zoo.’

The next day the policeman saw the same man in the same park and the man was still carrying the penguin with him. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked, ’Why are you still carrying that penguin about? Didn’t you take it to the zoo?’ ‘I certainly did,’ replied the man

‘and it was a great idea because he really enjoyed it, so today I’m taking him to the movies!’

1.       Dipinition ( Depenisi )
Explanation is a text which tells processes relating to forming of natural, social, scientific and cultural phenomena.

2.       Communicative porpose (tujuan )
Explanation text is to say 'why' and 'how' about the forming of the phenomena. It is often found in science, geography and history text books.

3.       Generick Stuktur (Struktur Kalimat)
Generic structure of Explanation
General statement; stating the phenomenon issues which are to be explained.
Sequenced explanation; stating a series of steps which explain the phenomena.

4.       Language Feactures ( Bahasa Yang Digunakan )
Language Feature of Explanation
Featuring generic participant; sun, rain, etc
Using chronological connection; to begin with, next, etc
Using passive voice pattern
Using simple present tense

5.       Excample Of Text ( Contoh Kalimat )

1. Present Tense (Waktu Sekarang)
A.  Simple Present Tense (Waktu Sekarang Sederhana)
a.     Subject + To Be (am / are / is) + …
b.    Subject + Verb + …
Rumus : subject + to be ( am/is/are ) + verb I + ing ......
Contoh kalimat :
(+) She is a new people here.
(+) He plays football every morning
(-) She isn’t a new people here.
(-) He not playing football every morning.
(?) Is she a new people here?
(?) How playing football every morning?